In 2019 towards the end of the year, a novel coronavirus was formed. The two important characteristics of this virus were that this could lead to severe disease and also cause death in people. This was highly infectious due to which it spread at an alarming rate globally and caused a ‘pandemic’. Human life seemed to come at a stand-still for almost 5 months.
Scientists all around the world have taken all the trouble in understanding the virus so that they can prevent the spread and ensure there is no mortality.
The majority of the world is vulnerable to the virus even now. A vaccine is the only way out as this can provide some protection. This can train the immune system to fight the virus.
According to the ICMR, the COVID-19 vaccine in India might come early and there is a probability of Emergency Authorization for this.
At present, there are two vaccine candidates in India, ZyCOV-D by Zydus Cadilla and Covaxin by Bharat Biotech.
The candidates of the COVID-19 vaccine coordinated by Zydus Cadilla and Bharat Biotech are at the completion of the trials of Phase II.
The whole nation is waiting impatiently for a vaccine that is ‘effective and safe’ and India is leaving no stone unturned in getting this done at the earliest. There have been talks on ‘emergency authorization’ for this vaccine by the ICMR.
The Director-General of the ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research), Mr. Balram Bhargava, informed the members of the home ministry that 2 phases the clinical trials are almost over. The III Phase of the vaccine might take another six to nine months, but if agreed upon, they could consider the ‘emergency authorization’.
Serum Institute of India is set to start the Phase II trial of the COVID-19 vaccine. This is developed by the AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford.
A drug maker based in Pune has selected 17 sites within India for conducting the trial. Around 1,600 candidates will participate in this study. Each of the participants will be administered 2 doses. There will be a gap of four weeks between both doses.
The first dose will be administered on Day 1 and the next dose will be administered on the 29 day.
Russia, at present, is the first country that registered a vaccine for COVID-19. According to the Russian President, Vladmir Putin, the vaccine has passed all the essential tests. This vaccine is dubbed as ‘Sputnik V’. This was developed by the Russian Defense Ministry and Gamaleya research. AS per the study, this vaccine can provide the required immunity against the Coronavirus for a period of two years.
The clinical human trials started on 17th June in 76 volunteers. Russia registered this vaccine after testing for less than 2 months.
COVID-19 vaccines can have different levels of effectiveness among different sections of people. There is a possibility of one or 2 vaccines not working well for the elderly as generally, they are not very responsive to vaccines.